Molecular markers of resistance to antimalarial drugs
Adapted from Eboumbou Moukoko EC, Bogreau H, Briolant S, Pradines B, Rogier C. [Molecular markers of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance]. Med Trop (Mars). 2009 69(6):606-12. French. PMID: 20099681.
Drug Resistance marker PfID Allel associated with resistance or decreased drug sensitivity Transcript Level of validation
Chloroquine Chloroquine resistance transporter pfcrt PF3D7_0709000
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K76T
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in vivo
Multidrug resistance protein MDR1 PF3D7_0523000
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H191Y and S437A
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in vitro
Amodiaquine Multidrug resistance protein MDR1 PF3D7_0523000
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N86Y
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in vivo
ABC transporter, (CT family) pfmrp PF3D7_0112200
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H191Y and S437A
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in vitro
ABC transporter, (CT family) pfmrp PF3D7_1229100
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H191Y and S437A
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in vitro
Mefloquine ABC transporter, (CT family) pfmrp PF3D7_0523000
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Copy number > 1
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in vivo
Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase DHFR PF3D7_0417200
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S108N
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in vivo
Tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase DHFR PF3D7_0417200
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S108N+ N51I+ C59R
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in vivo
Dihydropteroate synthetase DHPS PF3D7_0810800
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A437G
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in vivo
Dihydropteroate synthetase DHPS PF3D7_0810800
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A437G+K540E
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in vivo
DHFR/DHPS combination PF3D7_0417200
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S108N+N51I+C59R/ A437G+K540E
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in vivo
DHFR/DHPS combination PF3D7_0810800
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S108N+N51I+C59R/ A437G+K540E
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in vivo
ABC transporter, (CT family) pfmrp PF3D7_0112200
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K1466R
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in vivo
ABC transporter, (CT family) pfmrp PF3D7_1229100
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K1466R
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in vivo
Proguanil (cycloguanil) Tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase PF3D7_0417200
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S108T+A16V
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in vivo
Tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase PF3D7_0417200
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S108N+N51I and/or+C59R
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in vivo
Atovaquone ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase PF3D7_1426900 Y268N or Y268S
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in vivo
ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase PF3D7_1439400
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Y268N or Y268S
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in vivo
ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase PF3D7_1012300
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Y268N or Y268S
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treatment failure
Lumefantrine Multidrug resistance protein MDR1 PF3D7_0523000
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N86Y & Copy number > 1
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Association in vitro
Quinine PF3D7_1303500
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Number of motifs : DNNND > 2 or NHNDNHNNDDD < 3
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in vitro
ABC transporter, (CT family) pfmrp PF3D7_0112200
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H191Y and S437A
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in vitro
ABC transporter, (CT family) pfmrp PF3D7_1229100
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H191Y and S437A
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Association in vitro
Doxycycline tetQ family GTPase PF3D7_1235400
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Number of motif KYNNNN < 3
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Association in vitro
tetQ family GTPase PF3D7_1235400
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Copy number > 1
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Association in vitro
drug/metabolite transporter PF3D7_0516500
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Copy number > 1
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Association in vitro in Guyana
Artemether calcium-transporting ATPase PfATPase6 S769N
Online articles related to Molecular markers of resistance to antimalarial drugs retrieved from PubMed