Molecular markers of resistance to antimalarial drugs
Adapted from Eboumbou Moukoko EC, Bogreau H, Briolant S, Pradines B, Rogier C. [Molecular markers of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance]. Med Trop (Mars). 2009 69(6):606-12. French. PMID: 20099681.
Drug Resistance marker PfID Allel associated with resistance or decreased drug sensitivity Transcript Level of validation
Chloroquine Chloroquine resistance transporter pfcrt MAL7P1.27
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K76T
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in vivo
Multidrug resistance protein MDR1 PFE1150w
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H191Y and S437A
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in vitro
Amodiaquine Multidrug resistance protein MDR1 PFE1150w
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N86Y
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in vivo
ABC transporter, (CT family) pfmrp PFA0590w
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H191Y and S437A
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in vitro
ABC transporter, (CT family) pfmrp PFL1410c
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H191Y and S437A
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in vitro
Mefloquine ABC transporter, (CT family) pfmrp PFE1150w
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Copy number > 1
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in vivo
Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase DHFR PFD0830w
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S108N
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in vivo
Tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase DHFR PFD0830w
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S108N+ N51I+ C59R
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in vivo
Dihydropteroate synthetase DHPS PF08_0095
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A437G
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in vivo
Dihydropteroate synthetase DHPS PF08_0095
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A437G+K540E
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in vivo
DHFR/DHPS combination PFD0830w
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S108N+N51I+C59R/ A437G+K540E
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in vivo
DHFR/DHPS combination PF08_0095
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S108N+N51I+C59R/ A437G+K540E
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in vivo
ABC transporter, (CT family) pfmrp PFA0590w
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K1466R
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in vivo
ABC transporter, (CT family) pfmrp PFL1410c
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K1466R
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in vivo
Proguanil (cycloguanil) Tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase PFD0830w
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S108T+A16V
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in vivo
Tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase PFD0830w
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S108N+N51I and/or+C59R
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in vivo
Atovaquone ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase PF14_0248 Y268N or Y268S
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in vivo
ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase PF14_0373
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Y268N or Y268S
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in vivo
ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase PF10_0120
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Y268N or Y268S
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treatment failure
Lumefantrine Multidrug resistance protein MDR1 PFE1150w
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N86Y & Copy number > 1
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Association in vitro
Quinine PF13_0019
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Number of motifs : DNNND > 2 or NHNDNHNNDDD < 3
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in vitro
ABC transporter, (CT family) pfmrp PFA0590w
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H191Y and S437A
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in vitro
ABC transporter, (CT family) pfmrp PFL1410c
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H191Y and S437A
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Association in vitro
Doxycycline tetQ family GTPase PFL1710c
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Number of motif KYNNNN < 3
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Association in vitro
tetQ family GTPase PFL1710c
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Copy number > 1
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Association in vitro
drug/metabolite transporter PFE0825w
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Copy number > 1
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Association in vitro in Guyana
Artemether calcium-transporting ATPase PfATPase6 S769N
Online articles related to Molecular markers of resistance to antimalarial drugs retrieved from PubMed