Immunofluorescence based co-localization of KAHRP (using anti-K2A1 antibodies) and PfEMP1 (using anti-VARC antibodies) in P. falciparum infected erythrocytes. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of iRBCs showing individual images of DAPI stained parasite nuclei (blue), KAHRP (green), PfEMP1 (red), merged images of KAHRP and PfEMP1 and an overlay of the above on a DIC (differential interference contrast) image of the iRBC. Co-localizations are seen in yellow (red arrows). The red bar in each image corresponds to a scale of 2 mm. (a) Optical slice of the plasma membrane of a trophozoite infected RBC, showing extensive co-localization. (b) Cross-section of a trophozoite-infected RBC exhibiting co-localization on RBC membrane.
Ganguly AK, Ranjan P, Kumar A, Bhavesh NS. Dynamic association of PfEMP1 and KAHRP in knobs mediates cytoadherence during Plasmodium invasion. Sci Rep. 2015 Mar 2;5:8617.