Indirect immunofluorescence assay of PIESP2 protein expression and localization in infected red blood cells (IRBCs). PIESP2 proteins in IRBCs were sequentially probed with anti-PIESP2 serum and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-mouse IgG (green). Giemsa staining showed synchronized parasites at different stages. Parasite nuclei were stained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (blue). The RBC membrane was stained with anti-glycophorin A and then added with tetramethylrhodamine-conjugated anti-rat IgG (red). Scale bar: 10 μm. When the parasites progressed to the late intraerythrocytic stage, PIESP2 protein was dispersed in granule in IRBCs. Several PIEPS2 proteins seemed to colocalize with the erythrocyte surface protein GPA thereby implying that the former may be exported on the erythrocyte surface at the late intraerythrocytic stage.
Liu X, Wu Y, Zhao Y, Huang Y, Xu K, Wang J, Pan S, Liang J. Identification of Plasmodium falciparum-specific protein PIESP2 as a novel virulence factor related to cerebral malaria. Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Feb 22;177:535-547.