Effect of antimalarials on PfAtg18 localization. Early trophozoite stage parasites were treated with DMSO (Con) or antimalarials (artemisinin, Art; halofantrine, HF; chloroquine, CQ; amodiaquine, AQ; quinine, QN; mefloquine, MQ) for 8 hours and assessed for PfAtg18 localization by live cell fluorescence microscopy. The panels from the left are for GFP/PfAtg18 signal (Atg18), nucleic acid staining (Hoechst), bright field showing the boundaries of parasite and RBC (DIC), and the overlap of all three images (Merged). Compared with the food vacuole localization of GFP/PfAtg18 in control cells, treatment with chloroquine and amodiaquine caused diffuse localization all over the parasite.
Sudhakar R, Das D, Thanumalayan S, Gorde S, Sijwali PS. Plasmodium falciparum Atg18 localizes to the food vacuole via interaction with the multi-drug resistance protein 1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Biochem J. 2021 12:BCJ20210001.