Non-Genetic or Missed Genetic Variation
Neafsey DE, Volkman SK. Malaria Genomics in the Era of Eradication. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2017 Apr 7. pii: a025544.PMID: 28389516.
Type of Non-Genetic Variation Actively Propagated Heritability Example Mechanisms PMID
Physiological No Low Hard-wired transcriptional responses to stresses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae such as temperature, oxidation, nutrients, pH, and osmolarity 11179418
Trans-generational inheritance of stable proteins as was shown for lacZ protein inheritance in Escherichia coli bacteria exposed to a fluctuating carbon enegry source 25255314
Stochastic expression of fluorescent protein yEGFP in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under control of the GAL1 promoter and TetR repressor resulted in cell-to-cell heterogeneity of fluorescence in a genetically clonal population 12687005
Epigenetic Yes Medium Methylation of cytosine has been mapped in Plasmodium falciparum and correlates with hallmarks of transcritpional regulation, as has been demonstrated in many other eukaryotic organisms 24331467
Many histone chemical modifications have been mapped and shown to correlate with different transcriptional states in Plasmodium falciparum including H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K9ac, H3K14ac, H4K20me3, H3K79me3, H3K36me3, H3K27ac, H3K4me1, H4ac, and H3K36me2 26388940
Non-coding RNAs are involved in the control of mutually-exclusive expression of var genes in Plasmodium falciparum 21689454
3D genome architecture within the nucleus has been demonstrated to be involved in control of gene expression in Plasmodium falciparum 24671853
Missed Genetic Yes High Single nucleotide polymorphisms or copy number variations in the primary DNA sequence are often missed in non-coding or repettitive regions especially with next-generation sequencingand new technological approaches such as de-novo assemblies and longer read lengths may help eliminate some of the missed genetic variation especialy in the sub-telomeres of Plasmodium falciparum 22826220
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