Protein kinase coding genes
The list was prepared following Ward P, Equinet L, Packer J, Doerig C. 2004.  Protein kinases of the human malaria parasite
Plasmodium falciparum: the kinome of a divergent eukaryote. BMC Genomics.5:79.
PlasmoDB ID Annotation Literature Name Location Transcript EC# Essential Role
Cell-cycle-regulated protein kinases, Ser/Thr kinase
38021 PF3D7_1201600 NIMA related kinase 3 NEK3 Apicoplast
2.7.11.1 not likely Dispensable for blood-stage asexual proliferation
37974 Displays both Ser/Thr and Tyr kinase activities
37983 PF3D7_0605300
erine/threonine protein kinase ark1 NEK5 Spindle poles
2.7.11.1 yes Nuclear division - Associates with spindle pole bodies during erythrocytic schizogony
37973 Epistatic interaction with Pfnek-1
38024 PF3D7_0719200
NIMA related kinase 4 NEK4 Spindle poles
2.7.11.1 no Proposed role in commitment to gametocytogenesis; associates with nuclei of committed schizonts
PF3D7_0525900
NIMA related kinase 2 NEK2 microtubules
2.7.11.1 not likely DNA replication during meiosis and ookinete development in P. berghei
38027 PF3D7_1228300
NIMA related kinase 1 NEK1 cytoplasmic/ nuclear
2.7.11.1 yes Essential for asexual proliferation - Male-specific in gametocytes
38002 Epistatic interaction with PfARK1
38046 Cyclic-nucleotide- and calcium/phospholipid dependent kinases (AGC/Akt group)
38038 PF3D7_1246900
RAC-beta serine/threonine protein kinase PKB
2.7.11.1 yes Invasion of erythrocytes - Phosphorylates Glideosome-associated protein GAP45
37958 Regulated by calcium/calmodulin
38017 PF3D7_0934800
cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit PKAr
2.7.11.11 likely Invasion of erythrocytes
38013 Phosphorylation of the moving junction protein AMA1 during invasion
Interacts with Rab proteins
38042 Activated by melatonin treatment
37975 Regulatory subunit regulated anion channel conductance
38034 PF3D7_1436600
cGMP-dependent protein kinase PKG
2.7.11.12 yes Invasion of, and egress from, erythrocytes; Phosphorylates PfCDPK1
37959 Phosphorylation-deficient PfPKG is functionally incompetent in merozoite egress
37981 Release of the SUB1 protease from secretory organelles to mediate egress
37955 Epistatic interaction with PfCDPK1 and PfCDKP4
37963 Gametogenesis
37954 Nucleotide-binding domain used as a cGMP sensor in mammalian cells
37960 Control of calcium mobilisation, probably through phosphorylation of a calcium channel
38015 PF3D7_1356800
serine/threonine protein kinase ark3, putative ARK3 perinuclear
2.7.11.1 yes Merozoite ontogeny during late schizogony
38007 PF3D7_0309200
serine/threonine protein kinase ark2, putative ARK2
2.7.11.1 yes Likely essential for asexual proliferation - No functional data
38014 PF3D7_1145200 serine/threonine protein kinase, putative Apicoplast
2.7.11.1 likely
37979 PF3D7_1121900
3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1
2.7.11.1 likely
38016 Calmodulin-dependent kinases (CamK)
PF3D7_1423600 calcium-dependent protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.17 not likely
38003 PF3D7_0610600
calcium-dependent protein kinase 2 CDPK2 Mitochondrion
2.7.11.1 likely Male gametogenesis (exflagellation)
38039 Epistatic interaction with other CDPKs during invasion and motility
37976 PF3D7_1337800
calcium-dependent protein kinase 5, CDPK5 CDPK5
2.7.1.1 yes Egress of merozoite from iRBCs
37965 PF3D7_0310100
calcium-dependent protein kinase 3, CDPK3 CDPK3
2.7.11.17 likely
37962 PF3D7_0717500
calcium-dependent protein kinase 4, CDPK4 CDPK4
2.7.11.1 no Male gametogenesis (exflagellation)
37964 Epistatic interaction with PfPKG and other PfCDPKs
38033 PF3D7_0217500
Calcium-dependent protein kinases; CDPK1 CDPK1
2.7.11.1 yes Invasion of erythrocytes - Phosphorylates Glideosome-associated protein GAP45
40779 Invasion of erythrocytes - Interacts with 14-3-3
37970 Egress from erythrocytes - Phosphorylates the SERA5 protease
38008 Epistatic interaction with PfPKG
38050 Early schizont development
37957 Gametogenesis
38048 PF3D7_0321400
pseudo protein kinase 1, putative STK
2.7.11.17
38035 PF3D7_0214600 serine/threonine protein kinase stk2, putative -
2.7.11.1 no
38011 PF3D7_0311400 kinase-related protein pkrp -
not likely
37990 PF3D7_1123100
calcium-dependent protein kinase 7 CDPK7
2.7.11.17 no
38031 PF3D7_1104900 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.17 no
38009 PF3D7_1122800
calcium-dependent protein kinase 6 CDPK6
2.7.11.13 no Transition from a migratory to an invasive phenotype in P. berghei sporozoites
37961 PF3D7_0704500 serine/threonine protein kinase, putative Mitochondrion
2.7.11.1 no
38010 PF3D7_1136500
casein kinase 1 CK1 micronemes
2.7.11.1 yes Associates with host erythrocyte membrane and is secreted to the extracellular medium
38044 Associates with human CK1 and components of the erythrocyte trafficking machinery
Interacts with Rab proteins
38037 Cyclin-dependent-(CDK), mitogen-activated- (MAPK), glycogen-synthase-(GSK)
38026 PF3D7_1014400
MO15-related protein kinase MRK Nucleus
2.7.11.22 Yes Cell cycle control - Homologue of human CDK-activating kinase CDK7; associates with cyclin 1
37978 PF3D7_1356900
protein kinase 5 PK5
2.7.11.22 yes Cell cycle control - activation of Origin of Replication Control (ORC) components
38000 PF3D7_0615500
cdc2-related protein kinase 5 CRK5
2.7.11.22 not likely Regulation of the number of daughter merozoites; DNA replication during gametogenesis
37998 PF3D7_0417800
cdc2-related protein kinase 1 CRK1
2.7.11.22 yes Homologue of mammalian p58 kinases that negatively regulate proliferation - no functional data
37980 PF3D7_0317200
cdc2-related protein kinase 4 CRK4
2.7.11.22 yes DNA replication during schizogony
38028 PF3D7_0415300
cdc2-related protein kinase 3 CRK3
2.7.11.22 yes Epigenetic control of gene expression - Associates with histone deacetylase activity in asexual parasites
38052 PF3D7_1337100
protein kinase 6 PK6
2.7.11.22 yes Possesses features of both MAPKs and CDKs – no functional data available
37953 PF3D7_0105800 cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit, putative
likely
38054 PF3D7_0503500 protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.-
38047 PF3D7_1106800 pseudo-tyrosine kinase-like protein
2.7.10.2
38049 PF3D7_1445400
protein serine/threonine kinase-1 CLK1
2.7.11.1 yes Splicing - Phosphorylation of splicing factors in vitro
38032 PF3D7_0302100
serine/threonine protein kinase SRPK1
2.7.11.1 yes likely essential for asexual proliferation
37950 PF3D7_1443000
serine/threonine protein kinase SRPK2
2.7.11.1 yes Splicing - Phosphorylation of splicing factors in vitro
38030 PF3D7_1338900 serine/threonine protein kinase, putative Apicoplast
2.7.11.1 no
38001 PF3D7_1114700
cyclin-dependent-like kinase clk3 CLK3
2.7.11.1 likely Essential for liver and blood schizogony and gametocyte development
37982 PF3D7_0821100 protein kinase 1 PK1
2.7.11.1 no
37952 PF3D7_1316000
protein kinase, putative Mitochondrion
2.7.11.1 likely
37977 PF3D7_1108400
casein kinase 2, alpha subunit CK2
2.7.11.1 yes Invasion of erythrocytes - Phosphorylates reticulocyte homologue protein 2b (PfRhbp2)
37999 Chromatin assembly - Phosphorylates nucleosome assembly proteins, histones and Alba protein in vitro
38000 Epigenetic control of gene expression - Phosphorylates heterochromatin protein 1 in vitro
37951 PF3D7_0312400
glycogen synthase kinase 3 GSK3
2.7.11.26 yes Erythrocyte invasion - Phosphorylation of the moving junction protein AMA1; Exported to the erythrocyte
38018 PF3D7_1113900
mitogen-activated protein kinase 2 MAPK2
2.7.11.24 yes
38012 PF3D7_1431500
mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 MAPK1
2.7.11.24 not likely Pfmap-1 lines do not display apparent phenotypes, but causes overexpression of Pfmap-2; Double Pfmap-1/Pfmap-2 KO do not display phenotypes in asexual proliferation
38045 Tyrosine kinase like
38043 PF3D7_1349300
tyrosine kinase-like protein TKL3
2.7.10.2 yes Co-localises with cytoskeleton microtubules
38051 Mediates resistance to a compound targeting PfPKG
38000 PF3D7_1238900
protein kinase 2 PK2
2.7.11.1 likely Important for invasion
PF3D7_0628200
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase PK4
2.7.11.1 yes Arrest of global translation in mature schizonts and gametocytes
37968 PF3D7_0926300 protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.17 ?
38005 PF3D7_0926000 protein kinase, putative 2.7.11.1
38004 PF3D7_0715300 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.17 not likely
37956 PF3D7_1247500
serine/threonine protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.1 no
38019 PF3D7_1454300
snf1-related serine/threonine protein kinase kin KIN
yes Nutrient sensing in P. berghei
37949 PF3D7_0213400
protein kinase 7 PK7
2.7.11.1 not likely Regulation of the number of daughter merozoites and oocyst maturation
38055 Response to melatonin
37996 PF3D7_1474700 protein kinase, putative
37967 PF3D7_1441300 serine/threonine protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.1 no
38020 PF3D7_1444500 eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase 1 eIK1
not likely Regulation of stress-response to amino-acid starvation
37994 PF3D7_1331000 protein kinase, putative
37997 PF3D7_0107600 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2
2.7.11.1 not likely Regulation of sporozoites latency in the mosquito salivary glands (P. berghei)
37993 Upregulated in P. cynomolgi hypnozoites
37985 PF3D7_1315100
serine/threonine protein kinase PK9 PK9
2.7.11.1 yes Phosphorylation of the  E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 13
37986 Liver stage maturation
37991 PF3D7_0928800 serine/threonine protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.1 ?
37969 PF3D7_0718100
exported serine/threonine protein kinase EST
2.7.11.1 likely
38014 PF3D7_0211700
tyrosine kinase-like protein, putative TKL1 Mitochondrion
2.7.11.1 yes
37995 PF3D7_0623800
tyrosine kinase-like protein, putative TKL4
2.7.10.2 not likely
37992 PF3D7_0926100 protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.1 no
38040 PF3D7_0926300 protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.17
PF3D7_0203100
protein kinase, putative PfPK8
2.7.11.1 no
37988 PF3D7_1148000
serine/threonine protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.1 yes
38041 PF3D7_1121300
tyrosine kinase-like protein TKL2
2.7.10.2 no Closely related to human IRAK kinases; secreted to the extracellular medium; proposed role in immunomodulation
38025 PF3D7_1433900 protein kinase, putative Apicoplast
2.7.11.1 ?
37966 PF3D7_1428500 protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.1
37984 PF3D7_1450000 serine/threonine protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.17 not likely
PF3D7_0926300 protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.17 not likely
38006 FIKK family - apicomplexan protein kinases
38036 PF3D7_0424700
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK4.2
2.7.11.1 Regulation of knob structures on infected erythrocytes that mediate cytoadhesion
38053 PF3D7_1039000
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK10.2 Mitochondrion
2.7.11.1
38029 PF3D7_1016400
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK10.1
2.7.11.1 Associates with Maurer’s cleft and J-dots (trafficking structures in infected erythrocytes)
37972 PF3D7_0301200
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK3
2.7.11.1
38022 PF3D7_1149300
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK11
2.7.11.1
38023 PF3D7_0102600
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK1
2.7.11.1 Direct or indirect phosphorylation of FIKK10.2 and host erythrocyte Adducin
37987 PF3D7_1476400 serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family, pseudogene FIKK14 Apicoplast
2.7.11.1
37989 PF3D7_0902500
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK9.6
2.7.11.1 Associates with Maurer’s clefts (trafficking structures in infected erythrocytes)
37971 PF3D7_0424500
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK4.1 Maurer's clefts
2.7.11.1 Regulates rigidification of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton and trafficking of the PfEMP1 adhesin to the host cell surface; localises mainly to the cytoskeleton.
Phosphorylates human dematin (a cytoskeleton protein) in vitro
Associates with Maurer’s clefts (trafficking structures in infected erythrocytes)
PF3D7_1200800
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK12 Maurer's clefts
2.7.11.1 Regulation of the rigidity of infected erythrocytes
PF3D7_0902300 serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK9.4
2.7.11.1
PF3D7_0902600 serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK9.7 Apicoplast
2.7.11.1
PF3D7_0902200
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK9.3 Apicoplast
2.7.11.1 Associates with Maurer’s clefts (trafficking structures in infected erythrocytes)
PF3D7_0726200
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK7.1
2.7.11.1 Regulation of the rigidity of infected erythrocytes
PF3D7_0731400 serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family, pseudogene FIKK7.2
2.7.11.1
PF3D7_0805700
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK8
2.7.11.1 Involved in asexual proliferation, as conditional KO results in impaired growth
PF3D7_0902000
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK9.1 Apicoplast
2.7.11.1
PF3D7_0500900
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK5
2.7.11.1
PF3D7_1122800
calcium-dependent protein kinase 6 CDPK6
2.7.11.13
PF3D7_0902400
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK9.5 Apicoplast
2.7.11.1
PF3D7_0902100
serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family FIKK9.2 Maurer's clefts 2.7.11.1
PF3D7_1371700 serine/threonine protein kinase, FIKK family fikk13
Atypical protein kinases
PF3D7_0810200 ABC1 family, putative, ABCK1 ABCK1 Mitochondrion
PF3D7_1414500
atypical protein kinase, ABC-1 family, putative ABCk2
1.14.13.-
PF3D7_1230900
serine/threonine protein kinase RIO1, putative RIO1
2.7.11.1
PF3D7_0420100
serine/threonine protein kinase RIO2 RIO2
2.7.11.1
PF3D7_0724600 protein kinase, putative
2.7.11.1
Protein kinase regulators
PF3D7_1103700
casein kinase II beta chain CK2beta1
2.7.11.1
PF3D7_1342400
casein kinase II beta chain CK2beta2
2.7.11.1
PF3D7_1463700
cyclin 1 CYC1