Current anti-malarial agents
Drug name Drug class Anti-malarial activity Side effects
Quinine arylaminoalcohol Accumulates in food vacuoles and forms toxic haem complexes hearing impairment, rashes, vertigo, vomiting and in some cases neurotoxicity
quinidine arylaminoalcohol Acts similarly to quinine Headache, nausea, sweating vasodilatation and diarrhoea are common 
Mefloquine Amino alcohol Acts similarly to quinine Nausea, dizziness, diarrhoea, bradycardia and neurotoxicity
Lumefantrine Amino alcohol Similar to quinine, mefloquine and halofantrine. Marketed in combination with artemether. headache, dizziness, vomiting
Chloroquine 4-Aminoquinoline Being dibasic it achieves high concentrations in the digestive vacuole and is believed to inhibit haem olymerization and thus disrupt parasite haemoglobin metabolism May cause psoriasis
Amodiaquine 4-Aminoquinoline Similar mechanism to chloroquine Vomiting, dizziness and in some cases hepatic disorders
Quinacrine 4-Aminoacridine Exact mechanism poorly understood. Evidence of and inhibition of haem polymerization in the digestive vacuole. No longer used clinically as an antimalarial. mild transient headache, dizziness, and GI disorders such as diarrhea, anorexia, nausea,
Primaquine 8-Aminoquinoline Believed to block oxidative metabolism in the parasite Anorexia, vomiting, cramps and anaemia
Halofantrine Amino alcohol Acts similarly to quinine Nausea, diarrhoea, itching and high cardiotoxicity
Sulfadoxine Anilinosulphonamide Targets dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) competing with paraaminobenzoic acid (PABA) Skin reactions (rare)
Dapsone Anilinosulphone acts similarly to sulfadoxine bluish lips or skin, chest pain, mood changes
Sulfamethoxypyridazine sulfonamide antibacterial. Sulfonamides are structural analogues of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and act as competitive inhibitors of dihydropteroate synthase GI disturbances (nausea, vomiting, anorexia) and allergic skin reactions
Proguanil Biguanide Proguanil is metabolized in vivo to cycloguanil, a DHFR inhibitor, but is also known to have antimalarial activity in its right. Very few: hair loss and mouth ulcers
Cycloguanil Diamino-dihydrotriazine
In vivo metabolite from proguanil. Inhibitor of DHFR
abdominal pain, nausea, headache, and fever.
Chlorproguanil Biguanide Close analog of proguanil gastrointestinal distress, including diarrhea, cramps, nausea, vomiting, and increased flatulence
Pyrimethamine Diaminopyrimidine Inhibits DHFR Occasional rashes
Tetracycline Tetracyclic antibiotic/ antiparasitic Inhibits cell growth by inhibiting translation and results in a delayed death phenotype. Putative targets are 70S ribosomal subunit within the apicoplast and mitochondrian nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, upset stomach, swollen tongue
Doxycycline Tetracyclic antibiotic/ antiparasitic Acts similarly to tetracycline Depression of bone growth and gastrointestinal disturbances
Clindamycin Lincosamide antibiotic/ antiparasitic. Inhibits protein synthesis Nausea, vomiting and cramps
Azithromycin Macrolides and analogues Displays similar phenotype to tetracyclines May cause angioedema and jaundice
Artemisinin Endoperoxide Nausea, anorexia, dizziness and neurotoxicity
Artemether Endoperoxide
Semi-synthetic artemisinin derivative with similar activity
Joint pain, muscle pain
Arteether Endoperoxide
Semi-synthetic artemisinin derivative with similar activity
Headache,.nausea or vomiting. persistent cough. dizziness.
Dihydroartemisinin Endoperoxide Mixture of epimers. Metabolite of artemisinin and other artemisinin semi-synthetic derivatives with similar activity in its own right but less chemically stable. dizziness, headache, cough, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, asthenia
Artesunate Endoperoxide Highly soluble semi-synthetic dihydroartemisinin analogue. Marketed with mefolquine, amodiaquine and pyronaridine slow heartbeat, allergic reaction,dizziness, and low white blood cell levels.
Atovaquone Hydroxy-quinone The site of action appears to be the cytochrome bc1 complex (Complex III) and disruption of electron transport, resulting in inhibition of mitochondrial dehydrogenases. This inhibits pyrimidine biosynthesis and nucleic acid and ATP synthesis. Marketed in May cause rashes, diarrhoea and headache
Online articles related to Current anti-malarial agents retrieved from PubMed