Antiplasmodial marine natural product
Nweze JA, Mbaoji FN, Li YM, Yang LY, Huang SS, Chigor VN, Eze EA, Pan LX, Zhang T, Yang DF. Potentials of marine natural products against malaria, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis parasites: a review of recent articles. Infect Dis Poverty. 2021 10(1):9. PMID:33482912
Parasite form (IC50 or EC50) Cytotoxicity Compounds Classes Sources Organisms Country
Marine-derived alkaloids
Leishmania major (0.75 µmol/L) and L. donovani (7.02 µmol/L) promastigotes; Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 late trophozoites and schizonts (9.08 µmol/L); Trypanosoma brucei brucei intracellular amastigotes (0.78 µmol/L) NT Paenidigyamycin A (1) (Fig. 2a) Alkaloid Mangrove rhizosphere soil bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa strain De2sh Ghana
P. falciparum 3D7 and K1 strains trophozoites and schizonts (0.96–1.24, 5.11–6.49, and 3–6 μmol/L) Pseudoceratidine (1), 4 + 5, and 9 + 10 (inseparable structural isomers)
P. falciparum (K1 and FCR3) late trophozoites and schizonts (1.03 and 0.77 μg/ml) MRC-5 (15.99 μg/ml) Ceratinadin E (1) Alkaloid (Fig. 2d) Marine sponge Pseudoceratina sp. Japan
P. falciparum (K1 and FCR3) (3.77 and 2.45 μg/ml) MRC-5 (12.65 μg/ml) Psammaplysin F (3)
P. falciparum 3D7 late trophozoites and schizonts (12–21 μmol/L) HEK293 at 40 μmol/L (17–37%) Orthoscuticellines A and B (1 and 2), orthoscuticellines C−E(3−5), and six known compounds (6−11) (Fig. 2e) Alkaloid Bryozoa from storm debris from Korora beach Orthoscuticella ventricosa Australia
Marine-derived terpenes and terpenoids
L. donovani amastigotes (18.8 µg/ml), T. brucei rhodesiense trypomastigotes (11.8 µg/ml), T. cruzi trypomastigotes (47.8 µg/ml); and drug-resistant P. falciparum K1 late trophozoites and schizonts (0.65 µg/ml) RSM L6 (56.6 μg/ml) Bifurcatriol (1) (Fig. 3a) Diterpene Shore of Kilkee brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcate Ireland
P. falciparum strain Dd2 trophozoites (3.51, 2.11 and 0.8 µmol/L) NT Smenotronic acid (1), ilimaquinone (2), and pelorol (3) (Fig. 3d) Sesquiterpenoids Near shore sponge Hyrtios erectus Chuuk Island, Federated States of Micronesia
P. falciparum 3D7 (80 µmol/L) Jurkat, MDA-MB-231, U2OS, and A549 cell lines (24.9, 32.3, 41.7 and > 100 μmol/L) Sinuketal (1), Terpenoids (Fig. 3j) South China Sea soft corals Sinularia sp. Yongxing Island, China
P. falciparum 3D7 (NT) HeLa, HCT-116 and 11.6, 33.3 and > 100 μmol/L) Sinulins A and B (2 and 3), sinulins C and D (4 and 5), sesquiterpenoids (6–13) and cembranoids (14–21)
Marine-derived amino acids, peptide, amides, and polyketide
T. brucei brucei trypanosomes (47 nmol/L) MRC-5 cells (> 10 μmol/L) Janadolide (Fig. 4a) Cyclic polyketide-peptide Marine coast cyanobacterium Okeania sp. Japan
P. falciparium late trophozoites and schizonts (0.14 μmol/L) MRC-5 cells (> 10 μmol/L) Ikoamide (Fig. 4b) Lipopeptide Okeania sp. Japan
P. falciparum late trophozoites and schizonts (0.52 and 1.0 μmol/L) HeLa cells (10 μmol/L) Hoshinoamides A (1) and B (2) (Fig. 4c) Lipopeptides Caldora penicillata Japan
P. falciparum 3D7 and Dd2 ring stage (777.9–598.5 nmol/L) HEK-293 cells (Only comp. 2–cytotoxic) Herbimycin G (1) and elaiophylin (2), Cyclo-L-Pro-L-Leu (3), Cyclo-L-Pro-L-Phe (4), Cyclo-L-Pro-L-Val (5), Cyclo-L-Pro-L-Tyr (6) (Fig. 4e) Polyketides Bacterium from ascidian Symplegma rubra Streptomyces sp. (USC-16018) Australia
P. falciparum blood-stages (0.99 and 1.5 µmol/L) HEK293T (> 4.8 and 19 μmol/L), HepG2 (NT and > 23 μmol/L) Ulongamide A (2), lyngbyabellin A (3), Peptide Reef slopes offshore cyanobacterium Moorea producens Island in Fiji
Liver-stage P. berghei liver schizonts (EC50 = 11, 7.1, and 4.5 µmol/L) HEK293T (> 23, > 31, and > 13 μmol/L), HepG2 (> 23, 17, and > 13 μmol/L) Kakeromamide B (1), 18E-lyngbyaloside C (4), and lyngbyaloside (5) (Fig. 4f)
Marine-derived quinones, macrolide, lactones, and sterol
P. falciparum Dd2 in blood-stage (223 nmol/L) and intracellular L. donovani (4.67 μmol/L) HepG2 (extract not cytotoxic 25 μg/ml) Palstimolide A (Fig. 5b) Macrolide Central Pacific Ocean cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. USA
P. falciparum strain HB3 (NA and 5.7 ± 0.7 μmol/L) NT Bastimolide A (1) and B (2) (Fig. 5c) Macrolide Tropical marine cyanobacterium Okeania hirsute USA
Active against stages/forms of P. falciparum; L. infantum amastigote (7.64 and 3.19 µmol/L) and promastigotes (28.1 and 7.42 µmol/L), and L. tropica promastigotes (20.28 and 7.08 µmol/L) HMEC‐1 (62.19 ± 1.98 and 36.85 ± 5.79 µmol/L); THP‐1 (> 100 and 31.75 µmol/L) Sesquiterpene avarone (1) and avarol (3) (Fig. 5d) Quinone Coast area sponge Dysidea avara Turkey
chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum 3D7 strain blood stage (3.0 μmol/L and NA) RAW 264.7 cells and N2A cells (Not cytotoxic) Halymeniaol (1) and cholesterol (2) (Fig. 5f) Sterol Arabian sea red alga Halymenia floresii India
P. falciparum 3D7 strains blood stage (359 and 0.250 nmol/L) NT Kaimanol (1) and saringosterol (2) Sterol Marine marine sponge Xestospongia sp. Indonesia
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